If you’ve ever been involved in a manufacturing or production process, you’ll know there are always ways to improve efficiency and reduce waste. From small businesses to large-scale production lines, everyone can benefit from a more streamlined way of continuous flow process work.
While there have been various iterations of efficiency-focused production methods over the years, one of the most effective is known as One Piece Flow. In simple terms, this is a way of working where each person in the production process works on just one item at a time.
This might sound like it would slow things down, but it can have the opposite effect. By having everyone in the production line focused on a single task, it’s easier to identify errors and issues.
And, because there’s no need to stop and start for each new item, the overall process is faster and smoother – enhancing the ability to meet customer demand while encouraging continuous improvement.
One Piece Flow is built upon lean manufacturing principles, and it’s often used in conjunction with other methods such as Just-in-time production. This system relies on ongoing examination and improvement, which helps to ensure that the process is as efficient as possible.
Implementing One Piece Flow in a manufacturing or production environment has numerous benefits. In this article, we will examine One Piece Flow in greater detail, outline the pros and cons, and look at how you can use it to improve efficiency and reduce waste.
What is One Piece Flow?
To understand how One Piece Flow works, it can be helpful to return to its base principles in lean manufacturing.
As we’ve already touched on, the main aim of lean manufacturing is to eliminate waste and create a more efficient production process.
One Piece Flow takes this one step further by having each person in the production process work on just one item at a time. This might sound counter-intuitive – surely it would be quicker to have everyone working on multiple things simultaneously?
This alternative, known as “batch production,” is actually one of the main causes of waste and inefficiency in a production line.
When items are produced in batches, it’s often the case that some items will be delayed while others move ahead. This can lead to backlogs, errors, and wasted time and resources.
With One Piece Flow, each item is produced as its own batch. This means there’s no need to wait for a certain number of items to be completed before moving on to the next production stage.
Each item can move quickly and smoothly through the production process as each item is worked on one at a time. One Piece Flow is also called continuous flow or “single piece flow”.
Is Continuous Flow the Same as Just-in-Time?
One Piece Flow is often used in conjunction with the Just-in-time (JIT) system. While they are both lean manufacturing techniques that aim to improve efficiency, there are some key differences between the two.
JIT was raised to popular use by Toyota in the 1970s as a way to reduce waste and inventory costs. It’s based on the principle of producing only what is needed when it is required. In other words, there is no excess production or stockpiling of items.
Continuous flow takes the concepts built into JIT and applies them to the individual workers in the production process. So, while JIT is focused on reducing waste at a systems level, One Piece Flow is about increasing efficiency at an operator level.
How Does One Piece Flow Work?
One of the best ways to understand how One Piece Flow is better than traditional batch production is to look at an example.
Let’s say you’re manufacturing a widget that needs to go through four different processes before it’s complete. In a traditional batch production system, each worker would be responsible for completing one of these processes on multiple widgets at the same time.
So, the first worker might complete process one on ten widgets before moving on to the next stage. The second worker would then complete process two on those ten widgets, and so on.
This system is full of inefficiencies:
- There’s a risk that some widgets will be delayed while others move ahead
- If there’s an issue with one of the widgets, it can cause delays for the whole batch
- There’s potential for errors and mistakes as workers try to keep track of multiple items at once
With continuous flow, each worker is responsible for one widget at a time. So, the first worker would complete process one on widget number one before moving on to process two. They would hand that widget off to the second worker.
For example, let’s break down the time to completion for each stage of Widget A in a traditional batch system vs. a One Piece Flow system. In this example, each production piece requires about 1.5 minutes to complete:
- Worker 1 completes process one on 10 widgets in 15 minutes
- Worker 2 then completes process two on those 10 widgets in 15 minutes
- Worker 3 then completes process three on those 10 widgets in 15 minutes
- Worker 4 then completes process four on those 10 widgets in 15 minutes
So, the total time to complete one widget is 1 hour.
One Piece Flow:
- Worker 1 completes process one on Widget A in 1.5 minutes
- Worker 1 then hands Widget A off to Worker 2
- Worker 2 completes process two on Widget A in 1.5 minutes
- Worker 2 then hands Widget A off to Worker 3
- Worker 3 completes process three on Widget A in 1.5 minutes
- Worker 3 then hands Widget A off to Worker 4
- Worker 4 completes process four on Widget A in 1.5 minutes
So, the total time to complete one widget is 6 minutes. Ten widgets would take 1 hour to complete in a One Piece Flow system – the same amount of time it takes to complete just one widget in a traditional batch system!
But Isn’t The Continous Flow Process the Same as Batch Processing? The Benefits of One Piece Flow
At first glance, it might seem like One Piece Flow is just a more efficient way to do the same thing. After all, after a single hour, you still end up with ten widgets in an entire batch.
But the benefits of continuous flow go beyond simple efficiency. By breaking down the production process into individual pieces, there is less room for error. For example, imagine that within the manufacturing process for Widget A, there was an issue with process three.
In a traditional batch production system, that would mean scrapping the entire batch of 10 widgets and starting again from the beginning.
But in a One Piece Flow system, the issue would impact only Widget A. The other nine widgets would continue moving through the production line unharmed.
There are other unique benefits that come with One Piece Flow as well:
1. One Piece Flow Enhances Flexibility
Because each worker is only responsible for one widget at a time, it’s easier to make changes to the production process.
If a new widget comes in that needs a different process, it can be easily integrated into the line without disrupting the entire system. This means that factories can be more responsive to customer needs and demands.
2. One Piece Flow Improves Quality
When one worker only handles each widget, it’s easier to track any issues that might come up.
If there’s a problem with Widget A, it can be traced back to the specific process in which it occurred. This continuous improvement makes it easier to make improvements to the production process and ensure that all widgets are of the highest quality.
3. One Piece Flow Reduces Costs
One Piece Flow is a more efficient way to produce widgets, which means that it can save factories money.
By reducing the time it takes to complete each widget, factories can reduce their overall production costs.
In addition, the decreased chance of errors means that there will be less waste, which further reduces costs.
4. One Piece Flow Increases Engagement
Because workers are only responsible for one widget at a time, they can take more pride in their work.
This may seem like a small benefit, but it can significantly impact morale and motivation. When workers are more engaged, they’re more likely to do their best work and be more productive overall.
5. One Piece Flow Improves Communication
In a traditional batch system, it can be challenging to track the progress of each widget.
But in a One Piece Flow system, each widget is tracked as it moves through the production line. This makes it easier to identify any issues that might come up and resolve them quickly. Plus, it allows workers to communicate more easily about the progress of each widget.
Are There Risks with One Piece Flow?
Like any production system, there are some risks associated with One Piece Flow:
1. One Piece Flow Requires a High Level of Coordination
To implement One Piece Flow successfully, all workers must be highly coordinated. This can be challenging to achieve, especially in larger factories. But if workers are not properly coordinated, the entire system can break down.
2. One Piece Flow Requires Higher Setup Costs
To implement One Piece Flow, factories must invest in additional equipment and resources. This can be a challenge for smaller factories with limited budgets. But the benefits of One Piece Flow often outweigh the costs, making it a worthwhile investment for most factories.
3. One Piece Flow Is Not Always Appropriate
One Piece Flow is not always the best option for every factory. In some cases, a traditional batch system may be more appropriate. For example, if a widget is not likely to change often, there’s no need to invest in the extra equipment and resources required for One Piece Flow.
4. One Piece Flow Requires Ongoing Improvement
To maintain the benefits of One Piece Flow, factories must continually improve their production process. This includes making changes to the equipment, resources, and processes used. It’s essential to have a team in place that is dedicated to making these improvements.
The majority of issues related to One Piece Flow are related to complexity and setup.
If you know that your factory is ready for the challenge, then One Piece Flow can be an excellent way to improve efficiency and quality. The better your initial foundation, the easier it will be to make the necessary improvements.
How to Get Started with One Piece Flow
If you’re interested in implementing One Piece Flow, there are a few things you need to do to get started:
1. Assess Your Current Production Process
The first step is to assess your current production process. This will help you identify any areas that you could improve.
One way to do this is to create a value stream map. This is a visual representation of your production process that can help you identify any bottlenecks or waste.
You also need to ensure that your process is relatively low in complexity. If it’s too complex, it will be difficult to implement One Piece Flow, as the level of coordination required will be too high.
2. Invest in the Right Equipment and Resources
To implement One Piece Flow, you need to invest in the right equipment and resources. This includes things like conveyor belts, storage bins, and barcode scanners.
You also need to make sure that your factory has enough space to accommodate the necessary equipment. In some cases, you may need to expand your facility or build a new one.
3. Train Your Workers
Once you have the necessary equipment and resources in place, you need to train your workers. They need to understand how One Piece Flow works and how they can contribute to its success. Plus, they will need to know how to use the new equipment and resources.
4. Implement Changes Slowly
It’s important to implement changes slowly when first introducing One Piece Flow. This will help ensure that everything runs smoothly and that workers are properly trained.
You can start by implementing One Piece Flow in one area of your factory. Once it’s running smoothly, you can then roll it out to other areas.
5. Monitor and Adjust as Needed
Finally, you need to monitor your production process closely and make adjustments as needed. This includes things like tweaking the equipment or processes used.
It’s also important to regularly review your value stream map. This will help you identify any new bottlenecks or waste so that you can address them quickly.
Does One Piece Flow Work Outside of Manufacturing?
You can use one Piece Flow in a variety of industries, not just manufacturing. For example, it can be used in healthcare, construction, and even project management.
The key is to find an industry where there is a need to improve coordination and efficiency. Teams and leaders can apply the primary lean concepts of One Piece Flow to any industry:
- Healthcare: In healthcare, administrators can use one Piece Flow to improve coordination between different departments. For example, doctors can use it to ensure that patients are seen in a timely manner, and that test results are quickly sent to the appropriate doctor.
- Office environment: In an office environment, One Piece Flow can be used to improve communication between different departments. For example, it can be used to ensure that tasks are completed on time and that information is quickly sent to the appropriate person.
- Construction: In construction, contractors can use One Piece Flow to improve coordination between different trades. For example, it can be used to ensure that each task is completed accurately and that materials are quickly sent to the appropriate location.
- Project management: In project management, One Piece Flow can be used to improve coordination between different team members. For example, it can be used to ensure that tasks are completed in a timely manner, and that information is quickly sent to the appropriate person.
While batch processing has been the standard in manufacturing for many years, it may not be the most efficient way to produce goods. In fact, it can often lead to waste, errors, and increased costs.
Implementing One Piece Flow can help address these issues. Investing in the right equipment and resources and training your workers can streamline your production process and improve coordination between different departments.
Plus, by monitoring your progress and making adjustments as needed, you can ensure that your factory is always running efficiently.